Julius Kambarage Nyerere, “The Dilemma of the Pan-Africanist” - 1966

In 1966 Julius Kambarage Nyerere was President of the Republic of Tanzania. When President Kenneth Kaunda of neighboring Zambia became the first Chancellor of the University of Zambia when it was inaugurated on July 13, 1966 he invited Nyerere, also the Chancellor of the University of East Africa, to attend the ceremony and give an address to the assembled audience.  President Nyerere used the occasion to describe the possible conflict between African nationalisms and Pan-Africanism.

Your Excellencies, we have achieved many things in Africa in recent years, and can look back with some pride at the distance we have travelled. But we are a long way from achieving the thing we originally set out to achieve, and I believe there is a danger that we might now voluntarily surrender our greatest dream of all.

For it was as Africans that we dreamed of freedom; and we thought of it for Africa. Our real ambition was African freedom and African government. The fact that we fought are by area was merely a tactical necessity. We organized ourselves into the Convention People's Party, the Tanganyika African National Union, the United National Independence Party, and so on, simply because each local colonial government had to be dealt with separately.

The question we now have to answer is whether Africa shall maintain this internal separation as we defeat colonialism, or whether our earlier proud boast—’I am an African’—shall…

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